All adults should receive an annual influenza vaccination by injection or by nasal administration. The flu virus mutates continually, so having received a vaccination the previous season does not ensure you are protected this year.Flu Shot Information
Td or Tdap Vaccinations
All adults should receive either a tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine or the Tdap with added immunity against whooping cough (pertussis). If you have never had a Tdap, you should receive it once and then the Td as a booster every ten years. In the event of a whooping cough epidemic, the local health department may recommend repeating the Tdap as well, primarily to protect the children of the community for whom this condition may be fatal.
Vaccine for Pneumonia
Some vaccinations are recommended only for people with certain conditions. For example, the vaccine for pneumonia should be reserved for those with diabetes, heart or lung disease, and those over age 65.
Men and women should be immunized with three doses of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine before age 26 to reduce the occurrence of cervical cancer.
Vaccinations for Specific Populations
Other conditions for which vaccinations are available for specific populations include:
- Hepatitis A
- Hepatitis B
- Herpes Zoster (Shingles)
- Bacterial meningitis caused by meningococcus
- Varicella (chicken pox)
- Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR)
- Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) — a common bacterial infection in children
Finally, adults traveling to locations where certain conditions are common should consult a travel medicine specialist for specific recommendations depending on the destination, time of year, and any ongoing epidemic or endemic illness in that area of the world.